[VIP] The Teaching Files: Brain and Spine

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The Teaching Files: Brain and Spine
Expert Consult – Online and Print

 

By Girish Fatterpekar, MD, Assistant Professor Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, Section Neuroradiology, New York, New York
Part 1 Brain

 

Section 1 Disorders of Brain Development

 

Subsection 1.1 Disorders of Neural Tube Closure and Diverticulation

 

1 Anencephaly

 

2 Cephalocele

 

3 Atretic Cephalocele

 

4 Holoprosencephaly

 

Subsection 1.2 Disorders of Corpus Callosum and Septum Pellucidum

 

5 Agenesis of Corpus Callosum

 

6 Septo-optic Dysplasia

 

7 Cavum Septi Pellucidi and Cavum Vergae

 

Subsection 1.3 Disorders of Neuronal Migration

 

8 Lissencephaly

 

9 Polymicrogyria

 

10 Gray Matter Heterotopia

 

11 Schizencephaly

 

Subsection 1.4 Chiari Malformation

 

12 Chiari I Malformation

 

13 Chiari II Malformation

 

Subsection 1.5 Disorders of the Posterior Fossa

 

14 Rhombencephalosynapsis

 

15 Joubert Malformation

 

16 Dandy-Walker Malformation

 

17 Mega Cisterna Magna

 

Subsection 1.6 Disorders of the Pituitary Gland

 

18 Pituitary Aplasia

 

19 Pituitary Duplication

 

20 Posterior Pituitary Ectopia

 

Subsection 1.7 Miscellaneous Disorders

 

21 Persistent Open Anterior Fontanelle

 

22 Porencephaly

 

23 Hydranencephaly

 

24 Optic Nerve Hypoplasia

 

Section 2 Disorders of the Perinatal Period

 

25 Cephalhematoma

 

26 Caput Succedaneum and Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage

 

27 Periventricular Leukomalacia

 

28 Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

 

29 Kernicterus

 

30 TORCH infections

 

Section 3 Metabolic and Neurodegenerative Diseases of Childhood

 

Subsection 3.1 Gray Matter Disorders

 

31 Hallervorden-Spatz Disease

 

32 Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy

 

Subsection 3.2 White Matter Disorders

 

33 Alexander?s Disease

 

34 Canavan Disease

 

35 Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

 

Subsection 3.3 Inborn Errors of Intermediary Metabolism

 

36 Propionic Acidemia

 

37 Glutaric Aciduria Type 1

 

Subsection 3.4 Lysosomal Diseases

 

38 Fabry Disease

 

39 Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

 

40 Krabbe Disease

 

41 Mucopolysaccharidoses

 

Subsection 3.5 Mitochondrial Diseases & Peroxisomal Diseases

 

42 Kearns-Sayre Syndrome

 

43 MELAS

 

44 Leigh Syndrome

 

45 Classic X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

 

Section 4 Phakomatoses/Neurocutaneous syndromes

 

46 Neurofibromatosis Type 1

 

47 Neurofibromatosis Type 2

 

48 Tuberous Sclerosis

 

49 Sturge-Weber Syndrome

 

50 Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome

 

51 Ataxia Telangiectasia

 

52 Neurocutaneous Melanosis

 

Section 5 Seizures

 

53 Mesial Temporal Sclerosis

 

54 Hemimegalencephaly

 

55 Focal Cortical Dysplasia of Taylor

 

56 Epileptogenic Focus

 

57 Status Epilepticus

 

Section 6 Intracranial Trauma

 

58 Non-accidental Trauma

 

59 Depressed Skull Fracture

 

60 Growing Skull Fracture

 

61 Pneumolabyrinth Secondary to Trauma

 

62 Epidural Hematoma

 

63 Subdural Hematoma

 

64 Contusion

 

65 Coup-contre-coup Injuries

 

66 Diffuse Axonal Injury

 

Section 7 Intracranial Vascular Malformations: Congenital and Acquired

 

Subsection 7.1 Arterial malformations

 

67 Carotid Agenesis

 

68 Persistent Trigeminal Artery

 

69 Familial Intracranial Aneurysm

 

70 Saccular Aneurysm

 

71 Mycotic Aneurysm

 

72 Dolichoectasia of Basilar Artery

 

73 Moya Moya Disease

 

74 Carotid Artery Dissection

 

75 Carotid Artery Stenosis

 

76 Fibromuscular Dysplasia

 

77 Subclavian Steal Phenomenon

 

78 Arteriovenous Malformation

 

79 Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

 

Subsection 7.2 Venous and other vascular malformations

 

80 Developmental Venous Anomaly

 

81 Cavernous Angioma

 

82 Cavernous Hemangioma of Septum Pellucidum

 

83 Familial Cavernous Angiomas

 

84 Capillary Telangiectasias

 

85 Arachnoid Granulations in Venous Sinuses

 

86 Venous Sinus Thrombosis

 

87 Cortical Vein Thrombosis

 

88 Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis

 

89 Vein of Galen Malformation

 

Section 8 Stroke

 

90 Acute Arterial Infarction

 

91 Chronic Arterial Infarction

 

92 Lacunar Infarction

 

93 Watershed Infarction

 

94 Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome

 

95 Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

 

96 Vasculitis

 

97 Bechet’s Syndrome

 

98 Global Anoxic Injury

 

99 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

 

100 Venous Infarction

 

101 Brain Death

 

Section 9 Intracranial Hemorrhage

 

Subsection 9.1 Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage

 

102 Intraparenchymal Hematoma, Benign vs Malignant

 

103 Hemorrhagic Conversion of Infarction

 

104 Hypertensive Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage

 

105 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

 

106 Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage

 

Subsection 9.2 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

 

107 Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

 

108 Non-aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

 

109 Superficial Siderosis

 

Section 10 Hydrocephalus and Pneumocephalus

 

110 Medial diverticulum of Lateral Ventricle

 

111 Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

 

112 Non-communicating Hydrocephalus

 

113 Shunt-related Complications

 

114 Tension Pneumocephalus

 

Section 11 Demyelinating Diseases

 

115 Multiple Sclerosis

 

116 Neuromyelitis Optica

 

117 Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesion

 

118 Susac’s Syndrome

 

119 Marchiafava-Bignami Disease

 

120 Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

 

121 Acute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis

 

Section 12 Skull Lesions (Non-neoplastic)

 

122 Craniosynostosis

 

123 Bilateral Parietal Thinning

 

Section 13 Intracranial Tumors

 

Subsection 13.1 Tumors (and Tumor-Like Lesions) of the Scalp, Skull and Cranial nerves

 

124 Scalp Metastasis

 

125 Fibrous Dysplasia

 

126 Paget’s Disease

 

127 Osteoma

 

128 Calvarial Hemangioma

 

129 Intradiploic Epidermoid

 

130 Ecchordosis Physaliphora

 

131 Clival Chordoma

 

132 Chondrosarcoma

 

133 Neuroblastoma Metastasis

 

134 Intraosseous Meningioma

 

135 Calvarial Metastasis

 

136 Schwannoma

 

137 Facial Nerve Hemangioma

 

138 Perineural Spread of Tumor

 

Subsection 13.2 Tumors (and Tumor-like Lesions) of the meninges

 

139 Intracranial Meningioma

 

140 Intracranial Lipoma

 

141 Hemangiopericytoma

 

142 Meningeal (Dura and Leptomeningeal) Metastasis

 

143 Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis

 

Subsection 13.3 Lymphoma and Germ Cell Tumors

 

144 Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

 

145 AIDS-Related Lymphoma

 

146 Secondary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

 

147 Intravascular Lymphoma

 

148 Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

 

149 Granulocytic Sarcoma

 

150 Germinoma

 

151 Teratoma

 

Subsection 13.4 Tumors (and Tumor-like Lesions) of the Sella and Suprasellar compartment

 

152 Pituitary Microadenoma

 

153 Diabetes Insipidus

 

154 Pituitary Macroadenoma

 

155 Pituitary Apoplexy

 

156 Pituitary Carcinoma

 

157 Rathke Cleft Cyst

 

158 Sella Miscellaneous: Sheehan’s syndrome

 

159 Craniopharyngioma

 

160 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of Pituitary Stalk

 

161 Lymphocytic Hypophysitis

 

162 Hypothalamic Hamartoma

 

163 Optic Chiasmatic-Hypothalamic Glioma

 

Subsection 13.5 Tumors (and Tumor-like Lesions) of the Pineal Gland

 

164 Pineal Cyst

 

165 Pineocytoma

 

166 Pineoblastoma

 

167 Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region

 

168 Hemochromatosis

 

Subsection 13.6 Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue

 

Sub-subsection 13.6.1 Astrocytic Tumors

 

169 Pilocytic Astrocytoma

 

170 Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma

 

171 Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma

 

172 Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

 

173 Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma

 

174 Diffuse Astrocytoma

 

175 Anaplastic Astrocytoma

 

176 Brainstem Glioma

 

177 Glioblastoma

 

178 Butterfly Glioma

 

179 Multifocal Glioma

 

180 Gliosarcoma

 

181 Gliomatosis Cerebri

 

Sub-subsection 13.6.2 Oligodendroglial and Oligoastrocytic Tumors

 

182 Oligodendroglioma

 

183 Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma

 

184 Oligoastrocytoma

 

Sub-subsection 13.6.3 Ependymal Tumors

 

185 Subependymoma

 

186 Infratentorial Ependymoma

 

187 Cerebral Ependymoma

 

188 Anaplastic Ependymoma

 

Sub-subsection 13.6.4 Choroid Plexus Tumors and Other neuroepithelial Tumors

 

189 Xanthogranuloma of Choroid Plexus

 

190 Choroid Plexus Papilloma

 

191 Choroid Plexus Carcinoma

 

192 Chordoid Glioma

 

Sub-subsection 13.6.5 Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial Tumors

 

193 Lhermitte-Duclos Disease

 

194 Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma

 

195 Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor

 

196 Ganglioglioma

 

197 Central Neurocytoma

 

Sub-subsection 13.6.6 Embryonal Tumors

 

198 Medulloblastoma

 

199 Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor

 

200 Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

 

Sub-subsection 13.6.7 Treatment-Related Changes of Tumors

 

201 Radiation Necrosis

 

202 Pseudoprogression

 

Subsection 13.7 Cysts and Tumor-like conditions

 

203 Intracranial Epidermoid Cyst

 

204 Intracranial Dermoid Cyst

 

205 Colloid Cyst

 

206 Choroid Plexus Cyst

 

207 Choroid Fissure Cyst

 

208 Arachnoid Cyst

 

209 Neuroglial Cyst

 

Section 14 Intracranial Infections

 

Subsection 14.1 Prion diseases and Viral Infections

 

210 Prion Disease

 

211 Herpes Encephalitis

 

212 West Nile Encephalitis

 

213 Rasmussen’s Encephalitis

 

214 Cerebellitis

 

Subsection 14.2 HIV and HIV-related Infections

 

215 HIV Encephalitis

 

216 Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

 

217 Cryptococcosis

 

218 Toxoplasmosis

 

219 Immune Reconstitution Syndrome

 

Subsection 14.3 Bacterial Infections

 

220 Lyme Disease

 

221 Subdural Empyema

 

222 Pyogenic Abscess

 

223 Pyocephalus

 

224 Listeria Encephalitis

 

225 Mycobacterial Infection

 

226 Neurosarcoidosis

 

Subsection 14.4 Parasitic and Fungal Infections

 

227 Cerebral Malaria

 

228 Parenchymal Cysticercosis

 

229 Racemose Cysticercosis

 

230 Hydatid Disease

 

231 Aspergillus Abscess

 

Section 15 Nutritional Deficiencies and Toxins Affecting the Central Nervous System

 

232 Wernicke’s Encephalopathy

 

233 Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome

 

234 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

 

235 Metronidazole (Flagyl)-Induced Neurotoxicity

 

236 Hypoglycemia

 

237 Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy

 

238 Phenytoin Toxicity

 

239 Heroin Leukoencephalopathy

 

Section 16 Aging, Dementia and Movement-Associated Disorders

 

240 Normal Aging

 

241 Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis

 

242 Wilson?s Disease

 

243 Acquired Hepatocerebral Syndrome

 

244 Alzheimer’s Disease

 

245 Fronto-Temporal Lobar Dementia

 

246 Huntington?s Disease

 

247 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

 

248 Multiple System Atrophy-Parkinsonism

 

249 Multiple System Atrophy-Cerebellum

 

250 Vascular Dementia

 

251 Motor Neuron Disease (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

 

252 Mild Cognitive Impairment

 

253 Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration

 

Section 17 Miscellaneous: Brain

 

254 Fahr’s Disease

 

255 Trigeminal Neuralgia

 

256 Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

 

257 Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome

 

258 Gradenigo’s Syndrome

 

259 Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome

 

260 Meniere’s Disease

 

261 Papilledema: Drusen

 

262 Acute Denervation Change

 

Part 2 Spine and Spinal Cord

 

Section 1 Disorders of Spine Development

 

Subsection 1.1 Disorders of Primary Neurulation

 

263 Myelomeningocele

 

264 Lipomyelomeningocele

 

265 Lipoma, Intradural Spinal

 

266 Dorsal Dermal Sinus

 

267 Dermoid Cyst

 

Subsection 1.2 Disorders of Secondary Neurulation (Deranged canalization and retrogressive differentiation)

 

268 Tight Filum Terminale with Spinal Lipoma (Tethered Cord)

 

269 Lipoma of Filum Terminale

 

270 Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

 

271 Terminal Ventricle

 

272 Terminal Myelocystocele

 

273 Caudal Regression Syndrome

 

274 Currarino Syndrome

 

275 Lateral Meningocele

 

Subsection 1.3 Disorders (Embryogenic) of the Notochord and Vertebrae

 

276 Neurenteric Cyst

 

277 Diastematomyelia

 

Section 2 Spine Trauma

 

Subsection 2.1 Fractures and Dislocations

 

278 Atlanto-occipital Dislocation

 

279 Jefferson C1 Fracture

 

280 Hangman’s Fracture

 

281 Dens Fracture

 

282 Unilateral Facet Dislocation

 

283 Bilateral Facet Dislocation

 

284 Flexion Teardrop Fracture

 

285 Hyperextension Teardrop Fracture

 

286 Clay Shoveler’s Fracture

 

287 Chance Fracture

 

288 Burst Fracture

 

289 Sacral Insufficiency Fracture

 

Subsection 2.2 Soft Tissue Injury: Ligaments, Cord and Vessels

 

290 Repetitive Stress Injury

 

291 Hyperextension Dislocation

 

292 Central Spinal Cord Syndrome

 

293 Brachial Plexus Traction Injury, or Avulsion Pseudomeningocele

 

Section 3 Spinal Vascular Malformations: Congenital and Acquired

 

294 Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

 

295 Spinal Cord Arteriovenous Malformation

 

296 Cavernous Malformation

 

297 Epidural Hematoma

 

298 Subdural Hematoma

 

299 Spinal Cord Infarction

 

300 Cord Myelomalacia

 

Section 4 Spinal Tumors

 

Subsection 4.1 Extradural Tumors

 

301 Hemangioma

 

302 Osteoid Osteoma

 

303 Osteoblastoma

 

304 Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

 

305 Chondrosarcoma

 

306 Chordoma

 

307 Neuroblastoma

 

308 Ganglioneuroblastoma

 

309 Ewing’s Sarcoma

 

310 Leukemia

 

311 Plasmacytoma

 

312 Multiple Myeloma

 

313 Metastases

 

314 Myelodysplastic Syndrome

 

Subsection 4.2 Intradural Extramedullary Tumors

 

315 Meningioma

 

316 Plexiform Neurofibroma

 

317 Sarcomatous Degeneration of Neurofibroma

 

318 Dropped Metastases

 

Subsection 4.3 Intramedullary Tumors

 

319 Spinal Cord Astrocytoma

 

320 Cellular Ependymoma of Spinal Cord

 

321 Myxopapillary Ependymoma of Spinal Cord

 

322 Spinal Cord Hemangioblastoma

 

323 Paraganglioma

 

324 Melanocytoma

 

Subsection 4.4 Cysts and Tumor-like conditions

 

325 Arachnoid Cyst

 

326 Acquired Epidermoid Tumor

 

327 Syringohydromyelia

 

328 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

 

329 Kummel?s Disease (Avascular Necrosis of the Vertebral Body)

 

Section 5 Spinal Infections

 

330 Diskitis and Osteomyelitis

 

331 Grisel’s Syndrome

 

332 Granulomatous (Tuberculous) Osteomyelitis

 

333 Septic Facet Arthropathy

 

334 Epidural Abscess

 

335 Psoas Abscess

 

336 Acute Transverse Myelitis

 

337 Herpes Zoster Myelitis

 

338 Guillain-Barré Syndrome

 

339 Arachnoiditis

 

340 Cysticercosis

 

341 Sarcoidosis

 

Section 6 Nutritional Deficiencies and Toxins Affecting the Spinal Cord

 

342 Subacute Combined Degeneration

 

343 Radiation Myelopathy

 

Section 7 Aging, Degenerative Changes, and Inflammatory Arthritides Involving the Spine

 

344 Osteoporosis

 

345 Steroid-induced Changes

 

346 Degenerative Disk Disease

 

347 Spontaneous Regression of Disk Herniation

 

348 Discogram and its Role in evaluation of Degenerative Disk Disease

 

349 Scar versus Recurrent Disk

 

350 Baastrup?s Disease

 

351 Synovial Cyst

 

352 Rheumatoid Arthritis

 

353 Ankylosing Spondylitis

 

Section 8 Post-Treatment Complications

 

354 Failed-Back Surgery Syndrome

 

355 Instrumentation-placement Complications

 

356 Instrumentation Failure

 

357 Pseudomeningocele

 

358 Vertebroplasty/Kyphoplasty Complications

 

Section 9 Miscellaneous: Spine

 

359 Basilar Invagination

 

360 Prevertebral Tenditis

 

361 Idiopathic Cord Herniation

 

362 Dural Ectasia

 

363 Neurofibromatosis Type 1

 

364 Neurofibromatosis Type 2

 

365 Marfan Syndrome

 

366 Scoliosis

 

367 Conjoined Nerve Roots

 

368 Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

 

369 Limbus Vertebra

 

370 Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

 

371 Scheuermann Disease

 

372 Ochronosis

 

373 Achondroplasia

 

374 Mucopolysaccharidoses

 

375 Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

 

376 Charcot (Neuropathic) Arthropathy of the Spine

 

377 Epidural Lipomatosis

 

378 OPLL

 

379 Paget’s Disease

 

380 Renal Osteodystrophy

 

381 Extramedullary Hematopoiesis

 

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  1. DocGoogle asks this “Want in? Ask the owner for access” ??? My google account was dr……..nt…can@gmail.com please accept?

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