Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer worldwide – it is estimated to cause nearly one in five cancer deaths. Most lung cancer patients are diagnosed late and for many of them, there are currently no curative therapy options available, meaning long-term survival is still low. Nevertheless, enormous progress has been made in the field during the last decade. This Monograph provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of and advances in lung cancer, covering areas such as: screening; tobacco control; COPD; diagnosis; therapy; and treatment of early stage lung cancer from both a surgeon’s and radiation oncologist’s perspective. Very recent achievements in innovative fields, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies, are also discussed.